Aluminum Pure aluminum is soft, ductile, corrosion resistant and has a high electrical conductivity. It is widely used for foil and conductor cables, but alloying with other elements is necessary to provide the higher strengths needed for other applications. Aluminium is one of the lightest engineering metals, having a strength to weight ratio superior to steel. By utilising various combinations of its advantageous properties such as strength, lightness, corrosion resistance, recyclability and formability, aluminium is being employed in an ever-increasing number of applications. This array of products ranges from structural materials through to thin packaging foils.
Copper is easily stretched, molded, and shaped; is resistant to corrosion; and conducts heat and electricity efficiently. As a result, copper was important to early humans and continues to be a material of choice for a variety of domestic, industrial, and high-technology applications today. Presently, copper is used in building construction, power generation and transmission, electronic product manufacturing, and the production of industrial machinery and transportation vehicles.
Stainless Steel, most often, is used for applications requiring the unique properties of steel along with resistance to corrosion. You’ll find this alloy milled into coils, sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing. Unlike ordinary steel, stainless steel isn’t prone to corrosion, rusting, or staining with exposure to water.
Titanium The aerospace industry is the largest user of titanium products. It is a useful material for this industry because of its high strength to weight ratio and high temperature properties. Titanium is typically used for airplane parts and fasteners. These same properties make titanium useful for the production of gas turbine engines while it is also used for other parts such as the compressor blades, casings, engine cowlings and heat shields.
Brass Due to its unique properties, which include corrosion resistance, common uses for brass include applications that require low friction. These applications can include fittings (fasteners and connectors), tools, appliance parts, and ammunition components.
Acrylic is a transparent thermoplastic often used as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. Acrilic is an economical alternative to polycarbonate when tensile strength, flexural strength, transparency, polishability, and UV tolerance are more important than impact strength, chemical resistance, and heat resistance.
Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) is a homopolymer well suited for high-load mechanical applications such as gears, safety restraints, door systems, conveyor belts, healthcare delivery devices, and similar products and parts. Delrin is the ideal material for parts designed to replace metal. It combines low-friction and high-wear resistance with the high strength and stiffness such applications require. Delrin® also mates well with metals and other polymers and offers superior dimensional stability.
Ertalyte is synthesized from polyethylene terephthalate. It has excellent dimensional stability coupled with excellent wear resistance, low coefficient of friction, high strength, and resistance to weak acids. These properties make it especially suitable for the manufacture of precision mechanical parts which are capable of sustaining high loads and enduring wear conditions. Ertalyte retains significantly more of its original strength up to 180°F (85°C) than nylon or acetal.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a thermoplastic polymer with a high strength-to-density ratio. HDPE is used in the production of plastic bottles, corrosion-resistant piping, geomembranes and plastic lumber. It is also harder, more opaque, and can withstand somewhat higher temperatures. HDPE is resistant to many different solvents, so glued joints are not an option.
Nylon is a silk-like thermoplastic that can be melt-processed into fibers, films, or shapes. Nylon polymers have significant applications in fabric and fibers (apparel, flooring and rubber reinforcement), in shapes (molded parts for cars, electrical equipment, etc.), and in films.
Ppcopolymer (clear or white) Polypropylene offers physical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties not found in other thermoplastics. When compared to low or high density polyethylene, it has a lower impact strength; however, this is offset by superior working temperature and tensile strength. Polypropylene by nature is highly resistant to corrosive conditions, organic solvents, other degreasing agents and electrolysis. Furthermore, it is lightweight, stain resistant, and has a low moisture absorption rate.
Polypropylene is available as either homopolymer or copolymer material. Each type exhibits distinct differences in both appearance and performance. For example, polypropylene copolymer (PPC) is somewhat softer but has better impact strength and is tougher and more durable than homopolymer polypropylene. In addition, copolymer polypropylene tends to have better stress crack resistance and low temperature toughness.
PEEK (GF 30%) In comparison to unfilled PEEK, the glass fiber reinforced variant exhibits increased mechanical strength and high rigidity. Improved creep strength and dimensional stability are also achieved. These properties make this material suitable for use in parts which are exposed to high static loads over long periods in high temperature conditions.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is commonly known as Teflon. PTFE is well known as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is non-reactive, and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. As a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction, wear, and thus reduces energy consumption.
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is characterized by extremely long chains, resulting in a very tough material with the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic presently made.It embodies all the characteristics of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with the added traits of being resistant to concentrated acids and alkalis, as well as numerous organic solvents. It is highly resistant to corrosive chemicals except oxidizing acids; has extremely low moisture absorption and a very low coefficient of friction; is self-lubricating; and is highly resistant to abrasion, Its coefficient of friction is significantly lower than that of nylon and acetal and is comparable to that of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), but UHMWPE has better abrasion resistance than PTFE.
Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a specialty plastic used in applications requiring the highest purity, as well as resistance to solvents, acids and hydrocarbons. It is available in the form of piping products, sheet, tubing, films, plate and an insulator for premium wire. It can be injected, molded or welded and is commonly used in the chemical, semiconductor, medical and defense industries, as well as in lithium-ion batteries. It is also available as a crosslinked closed-cell foam and is used increasingly in aviation and aerospace applications. It can also be used in repeated contact with food products, as it is FDA-compliant and non-toxic below its degradation temperature. PVDF is also used as a binder component for the carbon electrode in supercapacitors and for other electrochemical applications.
Polyimide (Vespel) materials provide continuous operation at cryogenic to high temperatures; low wear and low friction at high PV in lubricated or unlubricated environments; outstanding creep, strength, and impact resistance; exceptional dimensional stability; low thermal expansion; and easy machinability. Vespel is often the best choice for highly demanding applications like aerospace components, semiconductor processing, automotive manufacturing, and energy production.
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) has excellent chemical resistance, radiation resistance, and flammability characteristics. It has the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion of any unfilled fluoropolymer. These characteristics make it an excellent choice when dimensional stability is critical. PCTFE is often used for aerospace applications when chemical resistance, a broad operating temperature range, and low flammability are required.
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a high purity thermoplastic with excellent chemical resistance, abrasion resistance, flame resistance, and UV stability. PVDF is widely used for chemical tank liners and semiconductor equipment components.
Polycarbonate (PC) is commonly used for plastic lenses, in medical devices, automotive parts, PPE, and outdoor lighting. Polycarbonate also has a high heat resistance. Polycarbonates are often specified when an impact resistant transparent surface is required.
Polyamide-imide (PAI) Torlon® is the highest performing, melt-processable thermoplastic. The amorphous polymer has exceptional resistance to wear, creep and chemicals and performs well under severe service conditions up to 260°C (500°F). Torlon® PAI also has superior electrical and structural characteristics at high temperatures, an extremely low coefficient of linear thermal expansion, and exceptional dimensional stability. Typical applications include non-lubricating bearings, seals, valves, compressors, and piston parts, bearing cages, bushings, and thrust washers.
Polyvinyl chloride – this rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe. It is also used in plumbing and electrical cable insulation.
Rulon is the trade name for a family of PTFE plastics produced by Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics. Rulon plastics are known for their low coefficient of friction, excellent abrasion resistance, wide range of operating temperatures, and chemical inertness. Common applications for Rulon include seals, piston rings, bearings, and electrical insulation.
Polyphenylsufone (PPSU) sold under its trade name Radel®, this plastic is suitable for use in electronic assembly equipment and devices that must withstand solder temperatures.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is a thermoplastic produced by chlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin, and has a significant advantage over non chlorinated PVC in that it significantly more flexible and can withstand higher temperatures.
G10 is favored for its high strength, low moisture absorption, and high level of electrical insulation and chemical resistance. These properties are maintained not only at room temperature but also under humid or moist conditions. It was first used as a substrate for printed circuit boards, and its designation.
G11 grade glass epoxy laminate offers improved mechanical strength at higher temperatures than G10. Because epoxy resins such as G11 laminate are virtually impervious to moisture, this material is a good choice of thermosets for fabricated components used in electrical and mechanical applications.